简明英汉词典

that is

(1)

即, 就是, 换句话说, 就是说

(2)

更确切地说

美国传统词典[双解]

that
that
AHD:[Y2t, Y…t]
D.J.[H#t, H*t]
K.K.[H#t, H*t]
pron.(代词)
【复数】 those[Y?z]

(1)

Used to refer to the one designated, implied, mentioned, or understood:
那个:用于指代所指、暗示、提及或被理解的事物:
What kind of soup is that?
那是什么汤?

(2)

Used to refer to the one, thing, or type specified as follows:
用于指代所跟随的某物、某事或某类型:
The relics found were those of an earlier time.
所发现的遗迹是较早的年代

(3)

Used to refer to the event, action, or time just mentioned:
那:指代已提过的事件、行为或时间:
After that, he became a recluse.
从那以后,他成了隐士

(4)

Used to indicate the farther or less immediate one:
那个:用于指示较远的或不是很近的一个:
That is for sale; this is not.
那个是出售的;这个不是

(5)

Used to emphasize the idea of a previously expressed word or phrase:
用于强调先前表达过的词或短语的意思:
He was fed up, and that to a great degree.
他已吃饱,而且相当撑

(6)

The one, kind, or thing; something:
某事:一个,种类或事物;某事物:
She followed the calling of that she loved.
她寻着她所爱之人的呼唤

(7)

those Used to indicate an unspecified number of people:
those 那些:用于指非特定的一群人:
those who refused to join.
拒绝参加的人

(8)

Used as a relative pronoun to introduce a clause, especially a restrictive clause:
作为关系代词引导从句,尤其是限定性从句:
the car that has the flat tire.
有扁平轮胎的汽车

(9)

In, on, by, or with which:
附加说明之物:相当于In,on,by or with which :
each summer that the concerts are performed.
举行音乐会的每个复季

(10)

According to what; insofar as:
根据;在…限度内:
He never knew her, that I know of.
就我所知,他从不认识她
adj.(形容词)
【复数】 those

(1)

Being the one singled out, implied, or understood:
那个:被选出的、暗示的或明白的:
that place; those mountains.
那个地方;那些山

(2)

Being the one further removed or less obvious:
那个:较远的或不太明显的:
That route is shorter than this one.
那条路比这条短
adv.(副词)

(1)

To such an extent or degree:
那样:达到这样的范围或程度:
Is your problem that complicated?
你的问题那样复杂吗?

(2)

To a high degree; very:
高度;非常:
didn't take what he said that seriously.
别那么认真地接受他的活
conj.(连接词)

(1)

Used to introduce a noun clause that is usually the subject or object of a verb or a predicate nominative:
用以导出名词从句:引导作为动词或谓语主格的主语或宾语的名词性从句:
“That contemporary American English is exuberantly vigorous is undeniable”(William Arrowsmith)
“当代美国英语蓬勃繁荣是不可否认的”(威廉·阿罗史密斯)

(2)

Used to introduce a subordinate clause stating a result, wish, purpose, reason, or cause:
用以导出从属子句:引导表述结果、愿望、目的、原因或理由的从句:
She hoped that he would arrive on time. He was saddened that she felt so little for him.
她希望他按时到达。他很悲伤她小看他

(3)

Used to introduce an anticipated subordinate clause following the expletive it occurring as subject of the verb:
引导跟随词it 作为动词主语的强调从句:
It is true that dental work is expensive.
确实看牙很贵

(4)

Used to introduce a subordinate clause modifying an adverb or adverbial expression:
引导修饰副词或副词短语的从句:
will go anywhere that they are welcome.
去任何欢迎他们的地方

(5)

Used to introduce a subordinate clause that is joined to an adjective or noun as a complement:
引导连结作为补语的形容词或名词的从句:
was sure that she was right; the belief that rates will rise soon.
肯定她是对的;比率很快会上升的信念

(6)

Used to introduce an elliptical exclamation of desire:
引导表示渴望的省略感叹词:
Oh, that I were rich!
噢,我很富有!

习惯用语

at that

(1)

In addition; besides:
除了:除此之外;除了:
lived in one room, and a small room at that.
除了住一个房间,还有一个小房间

(2)

Regardless of what has been said or implied:
但是:不考虑已被说的或被暗示的:
a long shot, but she just might win at that.
长的射程,但她可能恰恰赢了

that is
To explain more clearly; in other words:
也就是说:更清楚地表达;换句话说:
on the first floor, that is, the floor at street level.
在一楼,也就是说,和街道在同一层

语源

(1)

Middle English
中古英语

(2)

from Old English th?t * see to-
源自 古英语 th?t *参见 to-

用法

(1)

The standard rule is that that should be used only to introduce a restrictive (or “defining”) relative clause, which serves to identify the entity being talked about; in this use it should never be preceded by a comma. Thus, we say The house that Jack built has been torn down, where the clause that Jack built tells which house was torn down, or I am looking for a book that is easy to read, where that is easy to read tells what kind of book is desired. Only which is to be used with nonrestrictive (or “nondefining”) clauses, which give additional information about an entity that has already been identified in the context; in this use, which is always preceded by a comma. Thus, we say The students in Chemistry 10 have been complaining about the textbook, which (not that ) is hard to follow. The clause which is hard to follow does not indicate which text is being complained about; even if it were omitted, we would know that the phrase the textbook refers to the text in Chemistry 10. The use of that in nonrestrictive clauses like this, though once common in writing and still frequent in speech, is best avoided in formal style. · Some grammarians have argued that symmetry requires that which should be used only in nonrestrictive clauses, as that is to be used only in restrictive clauses. Thus, they suggest that we should avoid sentences such as I need a book which will tell me all about city gardening, where the clause which will tell me all about city gardening indicates which sort of book is needed. Such use of which is useful where two or more relative clauses are joined by and or or, as in It is a philosophy in which the common man may find solace and which many have found reason to praise. Which is also preferred to introduce a restrictive relative clause when the preceding phrase itself contains a that, as in I can only give you that which I don't need (not that that I don't need ) or We want to assign only that book which will be most helpful (preferred to that book that will be most helpful ). · That may be omitted in a relative clause when the subject of the clause is different from the referent of the phrase preceding the clause. Thus, we may say either the book that I was reading or the book I was reading, where the subject of the clause (I ) is not the referent of the phrase the book. Omission of that in these cases has sometimes been described as incorrect, but the practice is extremely common and has ample precedent in reputable writing. · There have also been occasional objections to the omission of that in its use to introduce a subordinate clause, as in I think we should try again. But this usage is entirely idiomatic and is in fact favored with some of the verb phrases that can introduce such clauses: thus, one would more normally write
标准规则中,that 应只被用于引导限定性(或“确定的”)关系从句, 这些从句用于明确正被谈论的实体;在这种情况下,前面决不能有逗号。因此,我们说杰克建的房子已经拆毁了 , 在这里,从句杰克所建的 指明哪幢房子被拆毁了, 或者我正在找一本易读的书 , 在这里,易读的 指明哪类书是需要的。 只有which 用于非限定性(或“不确定的”)从句中, 为已经在上下文中定义的实体提供附加信息;在此用法中,which 之前总有逗号。 因此,我们说化学10班的学生一直在抱怨这课本,实在 (不是 that ) 是太难懂了 。 从句which is hard to follow 并不指明哪一课本被抱怨; 即使它被省略,我们也知道the textbook 指化学10班的课本。 That 象这样用于非限定性从句中, 虽然在写作中曾很普遍而且在口语中依然频繁出现,但在正式文体中最好避免使用。一些语法学家认为对称性要求 which 应只用于非限定性从句中, 就象that 只用于限定性从句中。 因此,他们建议我们应该避免诸如我需要一本关于城市园艺的书 这样的句子, 这里从句which will tell me all about city gardening 指明需要何种书。 当两个或多个关系从句被and 或 or 连接时, which 的这种用法很有用, 如是哲学使普通人找到慰藉并使许多人有理由去称颂。 Which 也用作引导限定性关系从句,在当前置短语中含有that 时, 如我只能给你我不需要的东西 (不是 that that I don't need )或 我们只想分发那本最用的书 (好于that book that will be most helpful )。 当从句主语与从句前短语所指不一致时, that 在关系从句中可以省略。 因此,我们可以说the book that I was reading 或者 the book I was reading 。 在这里,从句主语(I )和短语 the book 的主语不同。 在这些情况下,that 的省略有时被认为是错误的, 但是这在实际中极普遍而且在规范写作中有充分的先例。对于that 用于引导从句时被省略偶然持有异议, 如在我认为我们应该再试一次 中。 但这种用法完全符合语法而且实际上有一些引导这样从句的短语支持;因此,可以正常应用
I take it she has passed the test
我猜她通过了测验,

(2)

than I take it that she has passed the test. Thatshould not be omitted, however, when the subordinate clause begins with an adverbial phrase or any element other than the subject:
好于I take it that she has passed the test。 然而,当从句以副词短语开头或其它不是主语的成份开头时,that不能省略:
She said that under no circumstances would she allow us to skip the meeting.
她说怎么样都会让我们参加会议。
The book argues that eventually the housing supply will increase.
书中证实住宅供应最终会增加。

(3)

This last sentence would be ambiguous if that were omitted, since the adverb eventually could then be construed as modifying either argues or will increase. See Usage Note at doubt, this, whatever, which, who
最后一句话中如果that 被省略,句子将变得模棱而可, 因为副词eventually 可以被解释为修饰 argues or will increase 参见 doubtthiswhateverwhichwho

现代英汉综合大辞典

say
[sei]
vt.
(said[sed]; 第三人称单数陈述语气现在时says [sez])

(1)

说, 讲

(2)

说明; 表达

(3)

念; 背诵

(4)

报道, 写道

(5)

[常用于虚拟语气、祈使句] 比如说; 姑且说; 假定说; 大约
Be polite and say "Please" and "Thank you ".
要有礼貌, 说"请", "谢谢你"。
Say it again in English.
用英语再说一遍。
Say what you think .
把你的想法说出来。
My watch says twenty past eight.
我的表是八点二十分。
The look on his face said that he was confident of success.
他脸上的表情显示他对成功具有信心。
He said his lesson [part].
他背课文[台词]。
The book says nothing about the affair.
书上对这件事什么也没有谈。
The radio says no rain today.
电台预报今日无雨。
The number left was not great, say, only ten.
余下的数目不大, 姑且说, 只有十个罢。
Say your plan fails; then what do we do ?
假定你的计划失败了, 那末我们怎么办呢?

词性变化

say
[sei]
vi.

(1)

说, 讲

(2)

[美口] 叫, 要; 让做某事
It is hard to say.
很难说。
She said to send you the letter,
她叫我把这封信带给你。

say
[sei]
n.
要说的话; 意见; 发言权; [常用 the say]决定权
It was entirely their decision, I had no say in it.
这件事完全是他们决定的, 我没有发言权。
The father had the final say.
父亲有最后的决定权。

习惯用语

so say l
我[我们]也是这么说的, 我[我们]的意见也是如此

so say all of us
我[我们]也是这么说的, 我[我们]的意见也是如此

and so say l
我[我们]也是这么说的, 我[我们]的意见也是如此

and so say all of us
我[我们]也是这么说的, 我[我们]的意见也是如此

as much as to say
等于说, 仿佛说

as who should say
[古]可谓, 可以这样说

before one can say Jack Robinson
[口]一下子, 一眨眼工夫, 马上

before one can say knife
[口]一下子, 一眨眼工夫, 马上

before one could say Jack Robinson
[口]一下子, 一眨眼工夫, 马上

before one could say knife
[口]一下子, 一眨眼工夫, 马上

before you can say Jack Robinson
[口]一下子, 一眨眼工夫, 马上

before you can say knife
[口]一下子, 一眨眼工夫, 马上

before you could say Jack Robinson
[口]一下子, 一眨眼工夫, 马上

before you could say knife
[口]一下子, 一眨眼工夫, 马上

Easier said than done.
[谚]说起来容易做起来难。

have no say in sth.
对某事有[没有, 没有多大]发言权

have a say in sth.
对某事有[没有, 没有多大]发言权

have not much say in sth.
对某事有[没有, 没有多大]发言权

have one's say
说出要说的话, 畅所欲言

say one's say
说出要说的话, 畅所欲言

say out one's say
说出要说的话, 畅所欲言

have sth. to say for oneself
有要辩白的话

have the say
[say-so] [美]有最后决定权

He who says what he likes, shall hear what he does not like.
随意说话的人迟早会听到他不中意的话。

give one his say
让人把话讲出来

have one's say
把话说完, 把想法说出来

hear say
听说, 据说

I can't say!
[口](一种表示否定的委婉说法)我不知道, 我说不上

I couldn't say!
[口](一种表示否定的委婉说法)我不知道, 我说不上

I cannot say much for
对...我认为不怎么好, 对...我不敢恭维

I dare say
我想, 大概

I'll say
我确实认为

I say!
(= Say !)[口](引起对方注意)嘿, 喂, 听着, 瞧!(表示惊奇)嗨!

I should say
我想, 大概, 也许

I won't say no.
我不反对; 乐意接受; 奉陪

I wouldn't say no.
我不反对; 乐意接受; 奉陪

It is said that ...
据说, 听说

It says in
[口]在...上写道, 在...上说

It says on
[口]在...上写道, 在...上说

Learn to say before you sing.
先学说再学唱; 凡事要按部就班。

Least said, soonest mended.
[谚]少说为妙, 多说坏事。

let ussay (=say)
比方说, 例如; 假定; 姑且说

needless to say
不用说, 不出意科

No sooner said than done.
说到就做, 说到做到。

not say much for
对...不作好评, 对...评价不高

not to say
虽然不能说, 即使不能说

So you say!
你那么说嘛!(意即事实不一定如此)

that is to say
即, 就是, 换句话说, 就是说; 更确切地说

that is
即, 就是, 换句话说, 就是说; 更确切地说

That's what you say.
(表示怀疑, 不相信等)这不过是你说的! 只听到你一个人这么说!

There is much to be said on both sides.
两方面都可以讲出许多道理来; 公说公有理, 婆说婆有理。

They say
人家说, 据说

What do you say to sth.
[口]你赞成不赞成做某事? 你喜欢不喜欢做某事?你对某事有什么意见?

wold you say to sth.
[口]你赞成不赞成做某事? 你喜欢不喜欢做某事?你对某事有什么意见?

What do you say to doing sth.
[口]你赞成不赞成做某事? 你喜欢不喜欢做某事?你对某事有什么意见?

wold you say to doing sth.
[口]你赞成不赞成做某事? 你喜欢不喜欢做某事?你对某事有什么意见?

what I say
我的看法[意见]

What sb. says goes.
某人说话是算数的[信得过、行得通的]; 照某人的话办。

What will Mrs Grundy say? (=What will the worldsay?)
不知人家会怎么议论? 不知社会上的人会怎么批评?

when all is said and done
说到底, 毕竟, 归根到底

You can saythat again!
[口]我完全同意! 你说对了!

You don't say (so)?
未必吧! 不会吧! 真的吗?

You may well say
[口]你完全有理由(这样)说; 你不妨(那么)说。

You may well say so
[口]你完全有理由(这样)说; 你不妨(那么)说。

You said it.
[美口]正是这样; 你说对了; 我同意。

Say away!
[口]说吧! 说出来吧!

say for oneself
为自己辩护, 辩解; 为自己找借口

say no
否定, 否认, 拒绝, 反对

Say no more!
[口]不用再说下去了! 你的意思我完全懂了!

Say on!
[口]说下去! 继续说!

say out
直说, 坦率说出

say over
背诵

say to oneself
自言自语; 心里想

say well
说得好, 说得对

say when

(1)

酒斟够了请说一声

(2)

[喻]停止, 制止

say yes
肯定, 承认, 同意, 赞成

Says you!
[美俚]我不信! 去你的! 胡说!

Sez you!
[美俚]我不信! 去你的! 胡说!

美国传统词典

that
that
AHD:[Y2t, Y…t]
D.J.[H#t, H*t]
K.K.[H#t, H*t]
pron.
pl. those[Y?z]

(1)

Used to refer to the one designated, implied, mentioned, or understood:
What kind of soup is that?

(2)

Used to refer to the one, thing, or type specified as follows:
The relics found were those of an earlier time.

(3)

Used to refer to the event, action, or time just mentioned:
After that, he became a recluse.

(4)

Used to indicate the farther or less immediate one:
That is for sale; this is not.

(5)

Used to emphasize the idea of a previously expressed word or phrase:
He was fed up, and that to a great degree.

(6)

The one, kind, or thing; something:
She followed the calling of that she loved.

(7)

those Used to indicate an unspecified number of people:
those who refused to join.

(8)

Used as a relative pronoun to introduce a clause, especially a restrictive clause:
the car that has the flat tire.

(9)

In, on, by, or with which:
each summer that the concerts are performed.

(10)

According to what; insofar as:
He never knew her, that I know of.
adj.
pl. those

(1)

Being the one singled out, implied, or understood:
that place; those mountains.

(2)

Being the one further removed or less obvious:
That route is shorter than this one.
adv.

(1)

To such an extent or degree:
Is your problem that complicated?

(2)

To a high degree; very:
didn't take what he said that seriously.
conj.

(1)

Used to introduce a noun clause that is usually the subject or object of a verb or a predicate nominative:
“That contemporary American English is exuberantly vigorous is undeniable”(William Arrowsmith)

(2)

Used to introduce a subordinate clause stating a result, wish, purpose, reason, or cause:
She hoped that he would arrive on time. He was saddened that she felt so little for him.

(3)

Used to introduce an anticipated subordinate clause following the expletive it occurring as subject of the verb:
It is true that dental work is expensive.

(4)

Used to introduce a subordinate clause modifying an adverb or adverbial expression:
will go anywhere that they are welcome.

(5)

Used to introduce a subordinate clause that is joined to an adjective or noun as a complement:
was sure that she was right; the belief that rates will rise soon.

(6)

Used to introduce an elliptical exclamation of desire:
Oh, that I were rich!

习惯用语

at that

(1)

In addition; besides:
lived in one room, and a small room at that.

(2)

Regardless of what has been said or implied:
a long shot, but she just might win at that.

that is
To explain more clearly; in other words:
on the first floor, that is, the floor at street level.

语源

(1)

Middle English

(2)

from Old English th?t * see to-

用法

(1)

The standard rule is that that should be used only to introduce a restrictive (or “defining”) relative clause, which serves to identify the entity being talked about; in this use it should never be preceded by a comma. Thus, we say The house that Jack built has been torn down, where the clause that Jack built tells which house was torn down, or I am looking for a book that is easy to read, where that is easy to read tells what kind of book is desired. Only which is to be used with nonrestrictive (or “nondefining”) clauses, which give additional information about an entity that has already been identified in the context; in this use, which is always preceded by a comma. Thus, we say The students in Chemistry 10 have been complaining about the textbook, which (not that ) is hard to follow. The clause which is hard to follow does not indicate which text is being complained about; even if it were omitted, we would know that the phrase the textbook refers to the text in Chemistry 10. The use of that in nonrestrictive clauses like this, though once common in writing and still frequent in speech, is best avoided in formal style. · Some grammarians have argued that symmetry requires that which should be used only in nonrestrictive clauses, as that is to be used only in restrictive clauses. Thus, they suggest that we should avoid sentences such as I need a book which will tell me all about city gardening, where the clause which will tell me all about city gardening indicates which sort of book is needed. Such use of which is useful where two or more relative clauses are joined by and or or, as in It is a philosophy in which the common man may find solace and which many have found reason to praise. Which is also preferred to introduce a restrictive relative clause when the preceding phrase itself contains a that, as in I can only give you that which I don't need (not that that I don't need ) or We want to assign only that book which will be most helpful (preferred to that book that will be most helpful ). · That may be omitted in a relative clause when the subject of the clause is different from the referent of the phrase preceding the clause. Thus, we may say either the book that I was reading or the book I was reading, where the subject of the clause (I ) is not the referent of the phrase the book. Omission of that in these cases has sometimes been described as incorrect, but the practice is extremely common and has ample precedent in reputable writing. · There have also been occasional objections to the omission of that in its use to introduce a subordinate clause, as in I think we should try again. But this usage is entirely idiomatic and is in fact favored with some of the verb phrases that can introduce such clauses: thus, one would more normally write
I take it she has passed the test

(2)

than I take it that she has passed the test. Thatshould not be omitted, however, when the subordinate clause begins with an adverbial phrase or any element other than the subject:
She said that under no circumstances would she allow us to skip the meeting.
The book argues that eventually the housing supply will increase.

(3)

This last sentence would be ambiguous if that were omitted, since the adverb eventually could then be construed as modifying either argues or will increase. See Usage Note at doubt, this, whatever, which, who

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