简明英汉词典

holocaust
[5hClEkC:st]
n.
大毁灭, 大屠杀

美国传统词典[双解]

holocaust
hol.o.caust
AHD:[h?l“…-k?st”, h?“l…-]
D.J.[6h%l*7k%8st, 6houl*-]
K.K.[6h$l*7k%st, 6hol*-]
n.(名词)

(1)

Great or total destruction, especially by fire.
浩劫:尤指火灾造成的巨大和完全的毁坏

(2)

Widespread destruction.
大面积的毁灭

(3)

A great disaster.
大灾难

(4)

Holocaust The genocide of European Jews and others by the Nazis during World War II:
Holocaust 大屠杀:二战中纳粹对欧洲的犹太人和其他民族实行的种族灭绝:
“Israel emerged from the Holocaust and is defined in relation to that catastrophe”(Emanuel Litvinoff)
“以色列是在大屠杀中出现并与那次灾难有关”(伊曼纽尔·利特温诺弗)

(5)

A massive slaughter:
大屠杀:
“an important document in the so-far sketchy annals of the Cambodian holocaust”(Rod Nordland)
“迄今为止不完全的编年史中关于柬埔寨屠杀的重要文件”(罗德·诺尔兰)

(6)

A sacrificial offering that is consumed entirely by flames.
燔祭:用火烧祭的供品

语源

(1)

Middle English [burnt offering]
中古英语 [焚烧的祭品]

(2)

from Old French holocauste
源自 古法语 holocauste

(3)

from Latin holocaustum
源自 拉丁语 holocaustum

(4)

from Greek holokauston [from neuter of] holokaustos [burnt whole]
源自 希腊语 holokauston [] 源自holokaustos的中性词 [全部焚烧]

(5)

holo- [holo-]
holo- [前缀,表“完全,整个”]

(6)

kaustos [burnt] from kaiein [to burn]
kaustos [被烧的] 源自 kaiein [烧]

继承用法

holocaustal 或

holocaustic
adj.(形容词)

用法

(1)

When referring to the massive destruction of human beings by other human beings, holocaust has a secure place in the language. Fully 99 percent of the Usage Panel accepts the use of holocaust in the phrase nuclear holocaust. Sixty percent accepts the sentence As many as two million people may have died in the holocaust that followed the Khmer Rouge takeover in Cambodia. But because of its associations with genocide, extended applications of holocaust may not always be received with equanimity. When the word is used to refer to death brought about by natural causes, the percentage of the Panel's acceptance drops sharply. Only 31 percent of the Panel accepts the sentence
holocaust 在指人类之间大规模的杀害时用法稳定。 百分之九十九的用法专题使用小组成员接受holocaust 在 nuclear holocaust 中的用法。 百分之六十的成员接受在红色高棉组织接管柬埔寨之后,高达两百万的民众死于那场大屠杀 。 但由于它和种族灭绝有一定联系,人们并不总能很平静地接受holocaust 的引申用法。 当用这个词表示由于自然灾害引起的死亡时,用法小组接受的百分比明显下降。只有百分之三十一的成员同意这样的用法:
In East Africa five years of drought have brought about a holocaust in which millions have died.
东非地区五年的干旱引起上百万人的死亡。

(2)

Just 11 percent approved the use of holocaust to summarize the effects of the AIDS epidemic. This suggests that other figurative usages such as the huge losses in the Savings and Loan holocaust may be viewed as overblown or in poor taste.
只有百分之十一的成员同意用holocaust 来表示爱滋病流行带来的灾难。 这表明其他修辞性用法,如在在存款和贷款灾难中的巨大损失 中可能会被认为夸张或没品味

注释
Totality of destruction has been central to the meaning of holocaust since it first appeared in Middle English in the 14th century and referred to the biblical sacrifice in which a male animal was wholly burnt on the altar in worship of God. Holocaust comes from Greek holokauston (“that which is completely burnt”), which was a translation of Hebrew ?la (literally “that which goes up,” that is, in smoke). In this sense of “burnt sacrifice,” holocaust is still used in some versions of the Bible. In the 17th century the meaning of holocaust broadened to “something totally consumed by fire,” and the word eventually was applied to fires of extreme destructiveness. In the 20th century holocaust has taken on a variety of figurative meanings, summarizing the effects of war, rioting, storms, epidemic diseases, and even economic failures. Most of these usages arose after World War II, but it is unclear whether they permitted or resulted from the use of holocaust in reference to the mass murder of European Jews and others by the Nazis. This application of the word occurred as early as 1942, but the phrase the Holocaust did not become established until the late 1950's. Here it parallels and may have been influenced by another Hebrew word, sho’ah (“catastrophe”). In the Bible sho’ah has a range of meanings including “personal ruin or devastation” and “a wasteland or desert.” Sho’ah was first used to refer to the Nazi slaughter of Jews in 1939, but its phrase ha-sho’ah (“the catastrophe”) only became established after World War II. Holocaust has also been used to translate hurban (“destruction”), another Hebrew word used to summarize the genocide of Jews by the Nazis. This sense of holocaust has since broadened to include the mass slaughter of other peoples, but when capitalized it refers specifically to the destruction of Jews and other Europeans by the Nazis and may also encompass the Nazi persecution of Jews that preceded the outbreak of the war.
自从holocaust 在14世纪首次出现于中古英语,表示在祭坛上完整焚烧公兽以示对上帝的虔诚时,完全的毁坏成为它的中心意思。 Holocaust 源于希腊语的 holokauston (“被全部焚烧的东西”), 是对希伯来词 ?la (直译为“上升的东西”,也就是变成烟上升的)。 Holocaust 在指“焚烧的祭品”时,仍在好几个版本的圣经中使用。 17世纪holocaust 的意义扩展到“被火烧尽的东西”, 后来该词又可喻指灾难性严重的大火。到了20世纪,holocaust 又有了许多喻义, 可指战争、暴动、风暴、传染病或经济失败造成的后果。多数用法出现于二次世界大战后,但究竟它们是否源于holocaust 指纳粹党对欧洲的犹太人及其他种族的大屠杀的用法还并不清楚。 该词的这种用法最早出现在1942年,但词组the Holocaust 在20世纪50年代后期才确立。 它和另外一个希伯来词sho'ah (“大灾难”)相似,并且可能还受其影响。 圣经中sho'ah 有许多意思, 包括“个人毁灭或破坏”和“荒原或沙漠”。Sho'ah 1939年首次用来指纳粹分子对犹太人的屠杀, 但是词组ha-sho'ah (“那场大灾难”)在二战后才确定。 Holocaust 曾一度用来翻译 hurban ("毁灭”), 另一个用来指纳粹对犹太人的种族灭绝的希伯来词。Holocaust 的这个意义后来也扩展到指对其他民族的大屠杀, 或当其大写时特指纳粹分子对犹太人和其他欧洲人的毁灭政策,或许还包括二战爆发前纳粹分子对犹太人的迫害

现代英汉词典

holocaust
[5hRlEkC:st]
n.
大屠杀;大破坏;火烧

现代英汉综合大辞典

holocaust
[5hClEkC:st]
n.

(1)

(焚烧全兽祭神的)燔祭

(2)

大屠杀

(3)

大破坏, 浩劫

继承用法

holocaustal,holocaustic
adj.

美国传统词典

holocaust
hol.o.caust
AHD:[h?l“…-k?st”, h?“l…-]
D.J.[6h%l*7k%8st, 6houl*-]
K.K.[6h$l*7k%st, 6hol*-]
n.

(1)

Great or total destruction, especially by fire.

(2)

Widespread destruction.

(3)

A great disaster.

(4)

Holocaust The genocide of European Jews and others by the Nazis during World War II:
“Israel emerged from the Holocaust and is defined in relation to that catastrophe”(Emanuel Litvinoff)

(5)

A massive slaughter:
“an important document in the so-far sketchy annals of the Cambodian holocaust”(Rod Nordland)

(6)

A sacrificial offering that is consumed entirely by flames.

语源

(1)

Middle English [burnt offering]

(2)

from Old French holocauste

(3)

from Latin holocaustum

(4)

from Greek holokauston [from neuter of] holokaustos [burnt whole]

(5)

holo- [holo-]

(6)

kaustos [burnt] from kaiein [to burn]

继承用法

holocaustal or

holocaustic
adj.

用法

(1)

When referring to the massive destruction of human beings by other human beings, holocaust has a secure place in the language. Fully 99 percent of the Usage Panel accepts the use of holocaust in the phrase nuclear holocaust. Sixty percent accepts the sentence As many as two million people may have died in the holocaust that followed the Khmer Rouge takeover in Cambodia. But because of its associations with genocide, extended applications of holocaust may not always be received with equanimity. When the word is used to refer to death brought about by natural causes, the percentage of the Panel's acceptance drops sharply. Only 31 percent of the Panel accepts the sentence
In East Africa five years of drought have brought about a holocaust in which millions have died.

(2)

Just 11 percent approved the use of holocaust to summarize the effects of the AIDS epidemic. This suggests that other figurative usages such as the huge losses in the Savings and Loan holocaust may be viewed as overblown or in poor taste.

注释
Totality of destruction has been central to the meaning of holocaust since it first appeared in Middle English in the 14th century and referred to the biblical sacrifice in which a male animal was wholly burnt on the altar in worship of God. Holocaust comes from Greek holokauston (“that which is completely burnt”), which was a translation of Hebrew ?la (literally “that which goes up,” that is, in smoke). In this sense of “burnt sacrifice,” holocaust is still used in some versions of the Bible. In the 17th century the meaning of holocaust broadened to “something totally consumed by fire,” and the word eventually was applied to fires of extreme destructiveness. In the 20th century holocaust has taken on a variety of figurative meanings, summarizing the effects of war, rioting, storms, epidemic diseases, and even economic failures. Most of these usages arose after World War II, but it is unclear whether they permitted or resulted from the use of holocaust in reference to the mass murder of European Jews and others by the Nazis. This application of the word occurred as early as 1942, but the phrase the Holocaust did not become established until the late 1950's. Here it parallels and may have been influenced by another Hebrew word, sho’ah (“catastrophe”). In the Bible sho’ah has a range of meanings including “personal ruin or devastation” and “a wasteland or desert.” Sho’ah was first used to refer to the Nazi slaughter of Jews in 1939, but its phrase ha-sho’ah (“the catastrophe”) only became established after World War II. Holocaust has also been used to translate hurban (“destruction”), another Hebrew word used to summarize the genocide of Jews by the Nazis. This sense of holocaust has since broadened to include the mass slaughter of other peoples, but when capitalized it refers specifically to the destruction of Jews and other Europeans by the Nazis and may also encompass the Nazi persecution of Jews that preceded the outbreak of the war.

英汉化学大词典

holocaust
n.大屠杀

英汉计算机大词典

holocaust
n.大屠杀

英汉消防大词典

holocaust
【消】(火灾造成的)大破坏

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