简明英汉词典

hardly
[5hB:dli]
adv.
刚刚, 几乎不, 仅, 严厉的, 艰辛的

美国传统词典[双解]

hardly
hard.ly
AHD:[h?rd“l?]
D.J.[6h$8dli8]
K.K.[6h$dli]
adv.(副词)

(1)

Barely; just.
仅仅:几乎没有;刚刚

(2)

To almost no degree; almost not:
几乎不:任何程度上几乎不;几乎没有:
I could hardly hear the speaker.
我几乎听不到演说者的声音

(3)

Probably or almost surely not:
可能或几乎肯定不:
“Easily was a man made an infidel, but hardly might he be converted to another faith”(T.E. Lawrence)
“一个人可以轻易地变为不信宗教的人,但几乎不可能转而相信另外一种信仰”(T.E.劳伦斯)

(4)

With severity; harshly.
严厉地;粗鲁地

(5)

With great difficulty; painfully.
非常困难地;痛苦地

语源

(1)

Middle English hardli
中古英语 hardli

(2)

from Old English heardloe [harshly, bravely]
源自 古英语 heardloe [粗鲁地,勇敢地]

(3)

from heard [hard] * see hard
源自 heard [坚硬的] *参见 hard

用法
The use of hardly with a negative is avoided in Standard English. Some critics have been puzzled that adverbs such as hardly, rarely, and scarcely should be treated as negatives in the traditional strictures against double negation, which tars sentences like I couldn't hardly see him with the same brush as I didn't get none. After all, they argue, the sentence Mary hardly laughed entails that Mary did laugh, not that she didn't, and therefore does not express a negative proposition. But hardly and scarcely occur with other negative expressions in a number of ways. For one thing, they combine with items such as any and at all, which are characteristically associated with negative contexts: we say I hardly saw him at all or I never saw him at all but not I occasionally saw him at all; we say I hardly had any time or I didn't have any time but not I had any time, and so on. Like other negative adverbs, hardly triggers inversion of the subject and auxiliary when it begins a sentence. Thus we say Hardly had I arrived when she left, on the pattern of Never have I read such a book or At no time has he condemned the movement. Such inversion is not used with other adverbs: we would not say Occasionally has he addressed this question or To a slight degree have they changed their position. The fact is that adverbs such as hardly are semantically negative in that they qualify a state or an event relative to the limiting case of nonoccurrence. Thus the meaning of hardly is, roughly, “almost not at all”; the meaning of rarely is “practically never”; and so forth. These adverbs are felt to have a negative component in their meaning, and it should not be surprising that grammarians have reacted to combinations of hardly with negatives in the same way that they have reacted to combinations of pairs of negatives such as not and none. See Usage Note at double negative, rarely, scarcely
Hardly 和一个否定词在一起的用法在标准英语中应尽量避免, 一些批评学家一直怀疑象hardly,rarely 和 scarcely 这样的副词在传统的双重否定的句中应被视为否定词, 这样的词使句子象I couldn't hardly see him 和 I didn't get none 一样被弄糟了, 他们争论说,毕竟句子Mary hardly laughed 的意思是玛丽的确笑了, 而不是她没笑,所以不表示否定的建议。但是hardly 和 scarcely 和其他的否定表示一起在许多方面出现, 举例说,他们和象any 和 at all 这样独特的和否定上下文联系的条目组合在一起, 我们说I hardly saw him at all 或 I never saw him at all , 但并不是I occasionally saw him at all; 我们说I hardly had any time 或 I didn't have any time 但不是I had any time 等。 象其它否定副词,hardly 在句子开头时引起主语和助动词的倒装, 于是我们说Hardly had I arrived when she left, 和 Never have I read such a book 或 At no time has he condemned the movement. 等同样的句型。 别的副词并不用这样的倒装:我们不能说Occasionally has he addressed this question 或 To a slight degree have they changed their position 。 事实是象hardly 这样的副词语义上是否定的, 他们限定修饰了与不发生有关的状态或事件。于是hardly 的意思大概是“几乎根本不”; rarely 的意思大概是“实际上没有”;等等。 这些副词在他们的意思里留有否定的成分,语法学家们对hardly 和否定词组合的反应和对一对否定词如 not 和 none组合的反应一样是不足为奇的 参见 double negativerarelyscarcely

现代英汉词典

hardly
[5hB:dlI]
adv.

(1)

几乎不;简直不
This is hardly the time to discuss such matters.
在现在讨论这事根本不合适。
It was so dark that I could hardly see.
天那么黑,我简直看不见了。
It rained for such a short time that it hardly dampened the ground.
雨只下了一会儿几乎没有把地面打湿。

(2)

绝不,一点也不
I can hardly ask him directly for more money.
我绝不能直接向他多要钱。
He hardly ever eats meat.
他从来不吃肉。
Peter is hardly ever late.
玛丽几乎从不迟到。

现代英汉综合大辞典

hardly
[5hB:dli]
adv.

(1)

几乎没有, 简直不

(2)

几乎不

(3)

完全不是..., 很难

(4)

不太, 不太象

(5)

刚...就

(6)

严厉地, 苛刻地

(7)

拼命地; 辛辛苦苦地
My legs were so weak I could hardly stand.
我的腿软得简直不能站立。
H-had he arrived when she started complaining.
他刚一到, 她就开始抱怨起来。

习惯用语

deal hardly with
虐待

hardly any
几乎没有

hardly ever
很少

think hardly of
把...想[说]得很坏

speak hardly of
把...想[说]得很坏

用法词典

hardly
hard 猛烈的+ -ly

英文相关词典

hardly
barely    just    narrowly    nearly    scarcely    

美国传统词典

hardly
hard.ly
AHD:[h?rd“l?]
D.J.[6h$8dli8]
K.K.[6h$dli]
adv.

(1)

Barely; just.

(2)

To almost no degree; almost not:
I could hardly hear the speaker.

(3)

Probably or almost surely not:
“Easily was a man made an infidel, but hardly might he be converted to another faith”(T.E. Lawrence)

(4)

With severity; harshly.

(5)

With great difficulty; painfully.

语源

(1)

Middle English hardli

(2)

from Old English heardloe [harshly, bravely]

(3)

from heard [hard] * see hard

用法
The use of hardly with a negative is avoided in Standard English. Some critics have been puzzled that adverbs such as hardly, rarely, and scarcely should be treated as negatives in the traditional strictures against double negation, which tars sentences like I couldn't hardly see him with the same brush as I didn't get none. After all, they argue, the sentence Mary hardly laughed entails that Mary did laugh, not that she didn't, and therefore does not express a negative proposition. But hardly and scarcely occur with other negative expressions in a number of ways. For one thing, they combine with items such as any and at all, which are characteristically associated with negative contexts: we say I hardly saw him at all or I never saw him at all but not I occasionally saw him at all; we say I hardly had any time or I didn't have any time but not I had any time, and so on. Like other negative adverbs, hardly triggers inversion of the subject and auxiliary when it begins a sentence. Thus we say Hardly had I arrived when she left, on the pattern of Never have I read such a book or At no time has he condemned the movement. Such inversion is not used with other adverbs: we would not say Occasionally has he addressed this question or To a slight degree have they changed their position. The fact is that adverbs such as hardly are semantically negative in that they qualify a state or an event relative to the limiting case of nonoccurrence. Thus the meaning of hardly is, roughly, “almost not at all”; the meaning of rarely is “practically never”; and so forth. These adverbs are felt to have a negative component in their meaning, and it should not be surprising that grammarians have reacted to combinations of hardly with negatives in the same way that they have reacted to combinations of pairs of negatives such as not and none. See Usage Note at double negative, rarely, scarcely

英汉化学大词典

hardly
adv.几乎不,很难,严格地

英汉计算机大词典

hardly
adv.几乎不(很难,严格地

英汉中医大词典

hardly
n.几乎不

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