简明英汉词典

hard
[hB:d]
adj.
硬的, 坚固的, (问题, 工作等)困难的, 艰苦的, 猛烈的, 确实的
adv.
努力地, 辛苦地, 坚硬地, 牢固地, 接近地, 猛烈地

美国传统词典[双解]

hard
hard
AHD:[h?rd]
D.J.[h$8d]
K.K.[h$d]
adj.(形容词)
hard.erhard.est缩写 h.H.

(1)

Resistant to pressure; not readily penetrated.
坚固的:对有压力的;有抵抗性的

(2)

Physically toughened; rugged.
身体结实的;强健的

(3)

Mentally toughened; strong-minded.
坚韧的:有独到见解的;意志坚强的

(4)

Requiring great effort or endurance:
困难的:要求巨大的努力和耐心的:
a hard assignment.
困难的任务

(5)

Performed with or marked by great diligence or energy:
勤奋的:需要巨大的努力和精力完成的:
a project that required years of hard work.
一项需要多年艰苦劳动的工程

(6)

Difficult to resolve, accomplish, or finish:
难以解决的:难对付的、难解决的或难以完成的:
That was a hard question.
那是一道难题

(7)

Difficult to understand or impart:
难以理解的,难以传授的:
Physics was the hardest of my courses. Thermodynamics is a hard course to teach.
物理学是我所学课程中最难理解的一门;热力学是非常难教的一门课

(8)

Intense in force or degree:
猛烈的:力量或程度上激烈的:
a hard blow.
猛烈的一击

(9)

Inclement:
严酷的:
a long, hard winter.
漫长而严酷的冬季

(10)

Stern or strict in nature or comportment:
严格的,严厉的:在性格或行为举动方面严格的或严厉的:
a hard taskmaster.
严厉的监工

(11)

Resistant to persuasion or appeal; obdurate.
倔强的,冷酷无情的:对信念或呼吁进行抵抗的;冷酷无情的

(12)

Making few concessions:
毫不让步的:
drives a hard bargain.
进行一场苛刻的交易

(13)

Difficult to endure:
难以忍受的:
a hard life.
令人无法忍受的生活

(14)

Oppressive or unjust in nature or effect:
刻薄的,苛刻的:在性格或外表上暴虐压制的或不公平的:
restrictions that were hard on welfare applicants.
这些限制对于那些福利申请人来讲实在太刻薄了

(15)

Lacking compassion or sympathy; callous.
冷淡的:缺乏热情或同情心的;冷酷的

(16)

Harsh or severe in effect or intention:
严厉的:在企图或结果上严重或严厉的:
said some hard things that I won't forget.
说了些令我不能忘却的严厉的事情

(17)

Bitter; resentful:
怨毒的;怨恨的:
No hard feelings, I hope.
我希望没有怨恨的情绪

(18)

Causing damage or premature wear:
引起损坏的,过早磨损的:
Snow and ice are hard on a car's finish.
冰和雪会破坏汽车表面的光泽度

(19)

Bad; adverse:
坏的;背运的:
hard luck.
坏运气

(20)

Proceeding or performing with force, vigor, or persistence; assiduous:
勤奋的:用力量、精力或耐心来进行或完成的;勤奋的:
a hard worker.
勤奋的工人

(21)

Real and unassailable:
有力的:确凿的且不容置疑的:
hard evidence.
有力的证据

(22)

Definite; firm:
确定的;强有力的:
a hard commitment.
明确的承诺

(23)

Close; penetrating:
严密的;透彻的:
We need to take a hard look at the situation.
我们需要对情况进行周密的调查

(24)

Free from illusion or bias; practical:
公正的,实际的:抛开幻想和偏见的;实际的:
brought some hard common sense to the discussion.
将实际的常识带到讨论中来

(25)

Using or based on data that are readily quantified or verified:
严密的:运用或基于事先计算或证明的数据:
the hard sciences.
严密的科学

(26)

Marked by sharp outline or definition; stark.
刻板的:由严格的提纲或概念规定的;刻板的

(27)

Lacking in delicacy, shading, or nuance.
不精密的、不灵活或缺乏变化的

(28)

Metallic, as opposed to paper. Used of currency.
金属的而非纸的。用于货币流通

(29)

Backed by bullion rather than by credit. Used of currency.
以金银为凭的:以金银储备而不是银行存款为凭证的。用于货币流通

(30)

High and stable. Used of prices.
高而稳定的。用于价格

(31)

Durable; lasting:
耐用的;持久的:
hard merchandise.
耐用的商品

(32)

Written or printed rather than stored in electronic media:
书写的:手写或打印而不用电子传播媒介的:
sent the information by hard mail.
将这条信息用手写信件送出去

(33)

Erect; tumid. Used of a penis.
竖起的:坚挺的;肿胀的。用于描写男性生殖器

(34)

Having high alcoholic content; intoxicating:
含大量酒精的;使醉的:
hard liquor.
烈酒

(35)

Rendered alcoholic by fermentation; fermented:
发酵的:通过发酵产生酒精的;发酵的:
hard cider.
苹果酒

(36)

Containing dissolved salts that interfere with the lathering action of soap. Used of water.
含无机盐的:含有参与肥皂起沫过程的溶解的盐的。用于水

(37)

Linguistics Velar, as in c in cake or g in log, as opposed to palatal or soft.
【语言学】 硬音的:与软音或软腭音相反的硬腭音,如cake(蛋糕) 一词中 c 的发音或 log(原木) 一词中 g 的发音

(38)

Physics Of relatively high energy; penetrating:
【物理学】 高透力的:具有相对高能量的;有穿透力的:
hard x-rays.
高透力X射线

(39)

High in gluten content:
麸质含量高的:
hard wheat.
硬粒小麦

(40)

Chemistry Resistant to biodegradation:
【化学】 对生物腐蚀有抵抗力的:
a hard detergent.
抗腐蚀清洁剂

(41)

Physically addictive. Used of certain illegal drugs, such as heroin.
麻醉品:肉体上上瘾的。用于如海洛因等特定的非法麻醉品

(42)

Resistant to blast, heat, or radiation. Used especially of nuclear weapons.
抗热的,抗辐射的:防爆、防热或防辐射的。尤用于核武器
adv.(副词)

(1)

With strenuous effort; intently:
努力地;拼命地:
worked hard all day; stared hard at the accused criminal.
一整天都在努力地工作;恶狠狠地盯着那个被控告的罪犯

(2)

With great force, vigor, or energy:
用力量、精力或能量地:
pressed hard on the lever.
猛烈地压在控制杠上

(3)

In such a way as to cause great damage or hardship:
剧烈地,苦难的:造成巨大破坏或困难地:
industrial cities hit hard by unemployment.
工业城市遭到失业的剧烈打击

(4)

With great distress, grief, or bitterness:
痛苦、苦闷或悲伤地:
took the divorce hard.
痛苦地接受离婚

(5)

Firmly; securely:
牢固地;安全地:
held hard to the railing.
紧紧地抓住栏杆

(6)

Toward or into a solid condition:
趋干或成为固体状态:
concrete that sets hard within a day.
混凝土在一天内就可以凝固

(7)

Near in space or time; close:
接近地:在时间或空间上相近的;接近地:
The factory stands hard by the railroad tracks.
工厂座落在铁路沿线

(8)

Nautical Completely; fully:
【航海】 完全地;完整的:
hard alee.
完全地向下风

习惯用语

hard and fast
Defined, fixed, and invariable:
严格规定的、刻板的和无变化的:
hard and fast rules.
严格的规定

hard of hearing

(1)

Having a partial loss of hearing.
听觉障碍:部分地失去听觉能力的

(2)

One who has a partial loss of hearing.
部分地失去听觉能力的人

hard put
Undergoing great difficulty:
陷入困境:
Under the circumstances, he was hard put to explain himself.
在这种情况下,他很难为自己辩解

hard up【非正式用语】
In need; poor.
短缺:在急需中;贫困

语源

(1)

Middle English
中古英语

(2)

from Old English heard * see kar-
源自 古英语 heard *参见 kar-

参考词汇

(1)

harddifficultarduous

(2)

These adjectives are compared as they mean requiring great physical or mental effort to do, achieve, or master.
比较而言这些形容词都意为为做某事、得到或掌握某物而付出肉体或精神上的努力。

(3)

Hard is the most general term:
Hard 是最常见的:
Why is it so hard for you to keep a secret?
为什么保守秘密对你来说如此之难?
“You write with ease to show your breeding,/But easy writing's curst hard reading” (Richard Brinsley Sheridan).
“轻轻松松地写,从而表现你的教养,/但是轻松地写是困难地读的祸根” (理查·布林斯利·谢里登)。

(4)

Difficult and hard are interchangeable in many instances:
Difficult 和hard 这两个词在许多情况下是可以互换使用的:
a difficult (or hard ) subject;
困难的(或 hard ) 课题;
a book that is difficult (or hard ) to find. Difficult, however, is often preferable where the need for skill or ingenuity is implied:
很难找的一本书(或 hard ) 。 然而Difficult一词在需要技术独创性的情况下,常会被使用:
“All poetry is difficult to read,/—The sense of it is, anyhow” (Robert Browning).
“诗歌总是难读的/无论如何,它的意义如此” (罗伯特·布朗宁)。

(5)

Arduous refers to what involves burdensome labor or sustained physical or spiritual effort:
Arduous 指需要付出难于忍受的劳动或持续的肉体上或精神上的努力的:
“knowledge at which [Isaac] Newton arrived through arduous and circuitous paths” (Macaulay).
“艾萨克·牛顿经过艰辛的和曲折的道路所得到的 知识” (麦考利)。
Negotiating a reduction in nuclear arms is a long and arduous undertaking. See also Synonyms at firm 1
有关削减核武器的谈判是一项漫长而艰苦的工作 参见同义词 firm1

现代英汉词典

hard
[hB:d]
adj.

(1)

坚硬的
This ground is too hard to dig.
这块地硬得挖不动。
The snow has frozen hard on the road.
路上的雪已经冻得很硬了。

(2)

困难的,难的
hard questions
难题
Is science harder than English?
自然科学比英语难学吗?
His argument is logical and hard to fault.
"他的论据逻辑严密,无懈可击。"
Old conventions die hard.
旧的习惯势力是不会轻易消亡的。

(3)

强力的;重的
a hard push
奋力一推
The hard core in the party make all the decisions.
这个党的核心成员决定一切。
The forecast says there is going to be a hard frost tomorrow night.
天气预报说明天夜里有严重霜冻。

(4)

辛苦的;艰难的
hard work
辛苦的工作

(5)

艰苦的
a hard life
艰苦的生活
It takes years of hard work to compile a good dictionary.
编一部好词典需要多年的艰苦工作。

(6)

严厉的;无情的
In our office building there is a hard and fast rule against smoking.
我们办公楼内严禁吸烟。
a hard master
严师
Don't be too hard on the boy; he didn't mean to do it.
"对这个小男孩不要太严厉了,他不是故意这么做的。"

(7)

发硬音的

(8)

含无机盐的
hard water
硬水

(9)

使人 上瘾的(药物)

(10)

因强光或吵声使人感觉不舒服的;不悦的
Her hard voice could be heard across the room.
她那讨厌的大嗓门在房间的这一边也听得见。
You failed your driving test? Hard luck!
你驾驶证考试没通过?真没运气!

词性变化

hard
adv.

(1)

努力地;艰苦地
They tried hard to succeed.
他们努力地工作以求得成功。
I have been working hard all morning.
我辛辛苦苦地干了一上午活。
Push hard!
用力推!

(2)

强烈地;重重地
It's raining harder than ever.
雨从来没下过这么大。
She struck the keys too hard and two of the strings were broken.
"她击键太猛,结果弄断了两根弦。"
Both the farmers and fishermen were hard hit by the bad weather.
坏天气使农民和渔民都遭受了重大损失。

习惯用语

be hard done by
亏待;苛待

be hard put to it
难以做(某事)

die hard
(习惯)不易根绝
Old conventions die hard.
旧的习惯势力是不会轻易消亡的。

hard at it
竭尽全力
She's working hard at her term paper.
她正在努力撰写学期论文。

现代英汉综合大辞典

hard
[hB:d]
adj.

(1)

坚固的, 硬的; 固体的

(2)

结实的, 紧的

(3)

艰苦的; 难于对付的

(4)

厉害的, 严酷的; 强烈的

(5)

(身体)健壮的; (组织等)健全的

(6)

难以忍受的; 艰辛的

(7)

激烈的, 猛烈的

(8)

苛刻的

(9)

(人等)冷酷的, 刻薄的

(10)

(食物等)粗糙的, 发酸的

(11)

【语】发硬音的

(12)

(市价等)稳定的

(13)

确实的, 不容怀疑的

(14)

(钱币)金属制的; (币制)可兑换成金子的

(15)

(水等)含无机盐的

(16)

(酒)烈性的

(17)

(声音等)刺耳的; (颜色等)刺眼的

(18)

恶性难改的

(19)

防原子的 ⑵⑽反差强的 ⑵

(20)

有抗性的 ⑵

(21)

有硬封皮的 ⑵

(22)

硬X射线管的 ⑵

(23)

(导弹设施等)有坚固掩护工事的 ⑵

(24)

(导弹)可以从地下发射井发射的 ⑵

(25)

(太空船的着落)撞毁的 ⑵

(26)

(火箭)着地时速度在每小时100-300英里之间的
as hard as rock
坚如盘石
be sentenced to two years' hard labour
被判处服两年苦役
a hard father
严父
a hard liquor
[美]烈性酒
hard words
难于入耳的话
Times are hard.
时世艰难。
Hard words break no bones.
[谚]直言无害。

词性变化

hard
adv.

(1)

努力, 使劲, 拼命地

(2)

厉害地, 猛烈地

(3)

紧紧地, 靠近

(4)

艰苦地

(5)

[美口]非常, 极

(6)

(煮得)老
swim hard
快游
look [gaze, stare] hard at sb.
死死盯住某人

hard
n.

(1)

[英]硬海滩, 登陆处

(2)

[英俚](囚犯的)强迫劳役
hard alee
【航海】驶船向上风的命令
hard all
全力以赴
Hard aport!
【航海】(驶船向右的命令)左满舵!
Hard astarboard!
【航海】右满舵!
aweather!
(=Hard up!)【航海】转舵挡风!

继承用法

hardback
[5hB:dbAk]
n.
硬皮书

词性变化

hard
adj.
硬皮的

hardbake
[`hB:dbeIk]
n.
[英](用糖和杏仁制成的)点心

hard-baked
adj.
烤干的, 烤得过头的

hardball
[`hB:dbR:l]
n.
硬式棒球

hard-bitten
adj.
咬起来凶狠的; 顽强的; 受过战争锻炼的

hardboard
[5hB:dbC:d]
n.
硬质纤维板

hard-boiled
[`hB:d`bRIld]
adj.

(1)

(鸡蛋)煮得老的

(2)

(衣服等)浆硬的, 挺括的

(3)

无情的, 强硬的

hardbound
[`hB:d`baJnd]
adj.
(书籍)硬封面装订的

hard-core
adj.

(1)

长期失业需要救济的

(2)

(黄色作品)赤裸裸描写的

(3)

核心[中坚]分子的

harddrawn
adj.
【机】冷拉的, 冷抽的

hard-earned
[`hB:d`\:nd]
adj.
凭血汗赚来的

hardfaced [favo(u)red,featured]
adj.
面貌严厉的; 其貌不扬的

hardfern
n.
硬羊齿植物

hard-grained
adj.
木理细密的, 坚硬的; (性格)固执的

hardhead
[`hB:dhed]
n.

(1)

精明而讲究实际的人

(2)

傻瓜

(3)

(头上多刺和多骨头的)硬头鱼(尤指锯、步鱼等)

(4)

硬质巴比合金

(5)

难熔的矿石

hardheaded
[hB:d5hedId]
adj.

(1)

冷静的; 精明而讲实际的

(2)

固执的

hardhearted
adj.
铁石心肠的

hard-land
[`hB:dlAnd]
vi., vt.
(使)硬着陆

hardlanding
n.
(火箭)硬着陆

hardline
n.,adj.
强硬路线(的)

hardliner
n.
强硬路线者

hard-nosed
adj.
(狗等)嗅觉不灵的; [美]顽固的; 精明而讲究实际的

hard-of-hearing
n.
耳背, 有点聋

hardometer
n.
硬度计

hard-sell
[`hB:d`sel]
adj.
硬性推销的

hard-set
[`hB:d`set]
adj.
窘迫的; 安放牢固的; 坚硬的; 顽固的; (鸡蛋)将要孵化的; (人)空腹的

hard-shelled
adj.
硬壳的; [美俚]坚持己见的, 顽固的

hardshower
n.
硬射流

hard-spun
[`hB:dspQn]
adj.
(纱线的)紧拈的

hardstand
[`hB:dstAnd]
n.
停机坪; 停车场

hard-surface
vt.
在...上铺硬质路面

hardtack
n.
硬饼干

hardtail
n.
骡子

hardtop
n.
金属顶盖式汽车

hard-top
n.
有硬质路面的地区[道路]
vt.
给...铺硬质地面

hard-up
adj.
[口]缺少; 急需

hardwater
n.
硬水

hard-wearing
adj.
耐穿的

hard-won
adj.
辛苦得来的

hardworked
adj.

(1)

累透的

(2)

陈腐的

hardworking
adj.
勤勉的

hardwrought
adj.
冷锻的

hardish
adj.
较硬的

习惯用语

hard as nails
铁石心肠; 冷酷无情

as hard as nails
铁石心肠; 冷酷无情

hard as the nether mill stone
铁石心肠; 冷酷无情

as hard as the nether mill stone
铁石心肠; 冷酷无情

be hard done by
受到不公平待遇

be hard hit
受到严重打击(经济上损失或失去亲人等)

be hard on
接近, 紧跟着; 使...难堪; 磨得历害

be hard upon
接近, 紧跟着; 使...难堪; 磨得历害

be hard pressed
被逼得很紧, 处于无奈; 被追击

be hard put to it
(做某事)有很大困难; 正在为难, 不知所措

be hard put to do sth.
(做某事)有很大困难; 正在为难, 不知所措

be hard up against it
[美口]处境很难; 面临 种种困难

have it hard
[美口]处境很难; 面临 种种困难

bear hard on
拼命压迫

die hard
(习惯等)不易改掉

follow hard after
紧紧跟着

go hard with sb.
使某人遭受不幸[痛苦]

go ill with sb.
使某人遭受不幸[痛苦]

play hard to get
假装(对某人某事)不感兴趣(以等待别人说服)

run sb. hard
紧追某人

take sth. hard
对某事耿耿于怀

try one's hard est
尽最大的努力

hard and fast

(1)

【航海】牢牢地(搁浅)

(2)

(=hard-and-fast)死板的; 硬性的(规则等), 不容变通的

hard and sharp
残忍, 苛薄

hard at it (=hard at work)

(1)

努力苦干; 非常忙碌

(2)

酗酒

hard by

(1)

在附近

(2)

在...近旁; 紧挨着

hard on

(1)

苛刻地对待(某人), 对(某人)要求过严

(2)

使(某人)感到困难[痛苦、不愉快]

(3)

迫近; 紧跟着

hard upon

(1)

苛刻地对待(某人), 对(某人)要求过严

(2)

使(某人)感到困难[痛苦、不愉快]

(3)

迫近; 紧跟着

hard over
[海]尽量靠一边

hard up
[口]经济困难; 缺钱

hard up for
[口]奇缺(某物)(指金钱以外的东西; 缺金钱仅用 hard up)

参考词汇
hard     difficult     ardous    
意思都含“困难的”、“需费力的”。

(1)

hard是一般用语, 指“不易做的”、“不易处理的”、“难了解的”, 侧重“体力上的困难”, 如:
It's hard to say which is better.
很难说哪一个好些。

(2)

difficult 指“需要通过相当努力或一定的技艺、智慧、策略或勇气才能处理或解决的”, 侧重“智力上的困难”, 如:
a difficult situation
困难的形势。

(3)

ardous 指“需要努力的”、“艰巨的”, 如:
the ardous task ahead us
我们面前的艰巨任务。
easy    

用法词典

hard
来自古英语 heard

英文相关词典

hard
callous    difficult    firm    harsh    inflexible    rigid    rough    rugged    severe    solid    stern    stony    strenuously    strict    tough    ugly    unpleasant    unyielding    easy    simple    soft    

[七国语言]英汉公共大词典

hard
困难的;硬的, 坚硬的

[七国语言]英汉矿业大词典

hard
硬的

美国传统词典

hard
hard
AHD:[h?rd]
D.J.[h$8d]
K.K.[h$d]
adj.
hard.er, hard.estAbbr. h., H.

(1)

Resistant to pressure; not readily penetrated.

(2)

Physically toughened; rugged.

(3)

Mentally toughened; strong-minded.

(4)

Requiring great effort or endurance:
a hard assignment.

(5)

Performed with or marked by great diligence or energy:
a project that required years of hard work.

(6)

Difficult to resolve, accomplish, or finish:
That was a hard question.

(7)

Difficult to understand or impart:
Physics was the hardest of my courses. Thermodynamics is a hard course to teach.

(8)

Intense in force or degree:
a hard blow.

(9)

Inclement:
a long, hard winter.

(10)

Stern or strict in nature or comportment:
a hard taskmaster.

(11)

Resistant to persuasion or appeal; obdurate.

(12)

Making few concessions:
drives a hard bargain.

(13)

Difficult to endure:
a hard life.

(14)

Oppressive or unjust in nature or effect:
restrictions that were hard on welfare applicants.

(15)

Lacking compassion or sympathy; callous.

(16)

Harsh or severe in effect or intention:
said some hard things that I won't forget.

(17)

Bitter; resentful:
No hard feelings, I hope.

(18)

Causing damage or premature wear:
Snow and ice are hard on a car's finish.

(19)

Bad; adverse:
hard luck.

(20)

Proceeding or performing with force, vigor, or persistence; assiduous:
a hard worker.

(21)

Real and unassailable:
hard evidence.

(22)

Definite; firm:
a hard commitment.

(23)

Close; penetrating:
We need to take a hard look at the situation.

(24)

Free from illusion or bias; practical:
brought some hard common sense to the discussion.

(25)

Using or based on data that are readily quantified or verified:
the hard sciences.

(26)

Marked by sharp outline or definition; stark.

(27)

Lacking in delicacy, shading, or nuance.

(28)

Metallic, as opposed to paper. Used of currency.

(29)

Backed by bullion rather than by credit. Used of currency.

(30)

High and stable. Used of prices.

(31)

Durable; lasting:
hard merchandise.

(32)

Written or printed rather than stored in electronic media:
sent the information by hard mail.

(33)

Erect; tumid. Used of a penis.

(34)

Having high alcoholic content; intoxicating:
hard liquor.

(35)

Rendered alcoholic by fermentation; fermented:
hard cider.

(36)

Containing dissolved salts that interfere with the lathering action of soap. Used of water.

(37)

Linguistics Velar, as in c in cake or g in log, as opposed to palatal or soft.

(38)

Physics Of relatively high energy; penetrating:
hard x-rays.

(39)

High in gluten content:
hard wheat.

(40)

Chemistry Resistant to biodegradation:
a hard detergent.

(41)

Physically addictive. Used of certain illegal drugs, such as heroin.

(42)

Resistant to blast, heat, or radiation. Used especially of nuclear weapons.
adv.

(1)

With strenuous effort; intently:
worked hard all day; stared hard at the accused criminal.

(2)

With great force, vigor, or energy:
pressed hard on the lever.

(3)

In such a way as to cause great damage or hardship:
industrial cities hit hard by unemployment.

(4)

With great distress, grief, or bitterness:
took the divorce hard.

(5)

Firmly; securely:
held hard to the railing.

(6)

Toward or into a solid condition:
concrete that sets hard within a day.

(7)

Near in space or time; close:
The factory stands hard by the railroad tracks.

(8)

Nautical Completely; fully:
hard alee.

习惯用语

hard and fast
Defined, fixed, and invariable:
hard and fast rules.

hard of hearing

(1)

Having a partial loss of hearing.

(2)

One who has a partial loss of hearing.

hard put
Undergoing great difficulty:
Under the circumstances, he was hard put to explain himself.

hard upInformal
In need; poor.

语源

(1)

Middle English

(2)

from Old English heard * see kar-

参考词汇

(1)

hard, difficult, arduous

(2)

These adjectives are compared as they mean requiring great physical or mental effort to do, achieve, or master.

(3)

Hard is the most general term:
Why is it so hard for you to keep a secret?
“You write with ease to show your breeding,/But easy writing's curst hard reading” (Richard Brinsley Sheridan).

(4)

Difficult and hard are interchangeable in many instances:
a difficult (or hard ) subject;
a book that is difficult (or hard ) to find. Difficult, however, is often preferable where the need for skill or ingenuity is implied:
“All poetry is difficult to read,/—The sense of it is, anyhow” (Robert Browning).

(5)

Arduous refers to what involves burdensome labor or sustained physical or spiritual effort:
“knowledge at which [Isaac] Newton arrived through arduous and circuitous paths” (Macaulay).
Negotiating a reduction in nuclear arms is a long and arduous undertaking. See also Synonyms at firm 1

英汉船舶大词典

hard
n.硬质

朗文英汉综合电脑词典

hard
【修】硬,难

英汉广播大词典

hard
n.硬色调的,强反差的

英汉航海大词典

hard
n.稳定的,坚硬的

英汉航空大词典

hard
n.硬的

英汉化学大词典

hard
adj.硬的,猛烈的,严厉的,确实的,困难的;adv.努力地,坚固地,猛烈地,立即

英汉海运大词典

hard
坚的,硬的(底质)难努力非常,极,竭力(拉船上岸的)硬斜坡道

基本词义

hard
硬(质)的,坚固的

基本词义

hard
硬(质)的,坚固的硬的硬的(海图图式)硬质的,淬硬的,坚的,硬的(底质)硬斜坡道难,努力,非常,极,竭力

基本词义

hard
硬质的,坚固的,淬硬的硬斜坡道

英汉经贸大词典

hard
n.稳定的,坚硬的

英汉计算机大词典

hard
adj.硬的(猛烈的,严厉的;adv.努力地(坚固地,猛烈地

英汉机械大词典

hard
n.硬的,重的

英汉建筑大词典

hard
n.硬海滩,登陆处

英汉农牧林大词典

hard
n.坚硬的,坚固的

英汉水利大词典

hard
n.硬的,坚固的,繁重的

英汉冶金大词典

hard
n.硬的,淬硬的

英汉医学大词典

hard
adj.反差强,难

英汉中医大词典

hard
n.硬的,坚硬的,困难的

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