简明英汉词典

decimate
[5desimeit]
vt.
每十人杀一人, 大批杀害

美国传统词典[双解]

decimate
dec.i.mate
AHD:[dμs“…-m3t”]
D.J.[6des*7meit]
K.K.[6dWs*7met]
v.tr.(及物动词)
dec.i.mat.eddec.i.mat.ingdec.i.mates

(1)

To destroy or kill a large part of (a group).
破坏:毁灭或杀死(一群)中的大部分

(2)

Usage Problem
【用法疑难】

(3)

To inflict great destruction or damage on:
毁损:使…遭受巨大破坏或损失:
The fawns decimated my sister's rose bushes.
小鹿弄坏了我姐姐的玫瑰花丛

(4)

To reduce markedly in amount:
骤减:在数量上显著减少:
a profligate heir who decimated his trust fund.
急剧减少信托基金的恣意挥霍的继承人

(5)

To select by lot and kill one in every ten of.
以抽签的方式选出并杀死其中的十分之一

语源

(1)

Latin decim3e decim3t- [to punish every tenth person]
拉丁语 decim3e decim3t- [惩罚每十个人中的一个]

(2)

from decimus [tenth]
源自 decimus [第十]

(3)

from decem [ten] * see dek?
源自 decem [十] *参见 dek?

继承用法

decimation
n.(名词)

用法
Decimate originally referred to the killing of every tenth person, a punishment used in the Roman army for mutinous legions. Today this meaning is commonly extended to include the killing of any large proportion of a group. Sixty-six percent of the Usage Panel accepts this extension in the sentence The Jewish population of Germany was decimated by the war, even though it is common knowledge thatthe number of Jews killed was much greater than a tenth of the original population. However, when the meaning is further extended to include large-scale destruction other than killing, as in The supply of fresh produce was decimated by the accident at Chernobyl, the usage is accepted by only 26 percent of the Panel.
Decimate 最初指杀死每十人中的一个, 用于古罗马军队对反叛军团的一种惩罚。现在这一层意思通常引申为大批杀死。用法专题使用小组中66%的成员认为在德国的犹太人在战争中被大批杀死 一句中该词的这一引申义可接受, 尽管众所周知,被杀的犹太人的数目远比最初人口的十分之一要多。可是,当词义外延至包括大量毁灭而不是戳杀,如在新鲜农产品的供应由于车诺比事故极大地受到了破坏 一句中, 用法专题使用小组中只有26%的成员接受这一用法。

注释
Decimate comes from the Latin word decim3, which meant “to punish every tenth man chosen by lot, as in a mutinous military unit,” decim3e being derived from decimus, “tenth.” Our word decimate is first recorded in this sense in 1600 in A Treatise of Ireland, written by John Dymmok: “All . . . were by a martiall courte condemned to dye, which sentence was yet mittigated by the Lord Lieutenants mercy by which they were onely decimated by lott.” Decimate then passed beyond the military context and came to be used rhetorically or loosely with reference to more than a tenth. Charlotte Bront?, for example, stated in a letter of 1848 that “Typhus fever decimated the school periodically,” although typhus fever certainly did not always kill exactly a tenth of the school's population.
Decimate 来源于拉丁词 decimare, 意为“以抽签的方式惩罚背叛罗马军队的人的十分之一",decimare 是从表示“第十”的decimus 一词中派生出来的。 我们所说的decimate 一词的这一意义,首次记载在1600年的约翰·戴马克写的 爱尔兰纪事 中: “所有的人…都被军事法庭判处死刑,但这一判决被总督仁慈地减轻了,即以抽签的方式处死他们中的十分之一”。Decimate 后来不仅用于与军队有关的上下文中,而且不严格地用于指比十分之一多的数。例如,夏洛蒂·勃朗特在1848年写的一封信里称“斑疹伤寒定期地给学校带来巨大的灾难”, 尽管斑疹伤寒当然不总是导致学校十分之一人口的死亡

现代英汉综合大辞典

decimate
[5desimeit]
vt.

(1)

抽取...的十分之一, 消灭十分之一

(2)

抽杀...十分之一的人(古罗马对叛军的惩罚)

(3)

(传染病等)使死去多人; 大批杀死; 大量毁坏

(4)

向...征收(十一税)
decimate a regiment
抽杀一个军团十分之一的人
decimate carloads
十车货物中取一车的税收

(5)

【说明】此词过去的意思是“消灭十分之一”, 但现在常表示“消灭十分之九”, 有人认为这种用法不是地道的英语。

继承用法

decimation
[9desI`meIFLn]
n.

美国传统词典

decimate
dec.i.mate
AHD:[dμs“…-m3t”]
D.J.[6des*7meit]
K.K.[6dWs*7met]
v.tr.
dec.i.mat.ed, dec.i.mat.ing, dec.i.mates

(1)

To destroy or kill a large part of (a group).

(2)

Usage Problem

(3)

To inflict great destruction or damage on:
The fawns decimated my sister's rose bushes.

(4)

To reduce markedly in amount:
a profligate heir who decimated his trust fund.

(5)

To select by lot and kill one in every ten of.

语源

(1)

Latin decim3e decim3t- [to punish every tenth person]

(2)

from decimus [tenth]

(3)

from decem [ten] * see dek?

继承用法

decimation
n.

用法
Decimate originally referred to the killing of every tenth person, a punishment used in the Roman army for mutinous legions. Today this meaning is commonly extended to include the killing of any large proportion of a group. Sixty-six percent of the Usage Panel accepts this extension in the sentence The Jewish population of Germany was decimated by the war, even though it is common knowledge thatthe number of Jews killed was much greater than a tenth of the original population. However, when the meaning is further extended to include large-scale destruction other than killing, as in The supply of fresh produce was decimated by the accident at Chernobyl, the usage is accepted by only 26 percent of the Panel.

注释
Decimate comes from the Latin word decim3, which meant “to punish every tenth man chosen by lot, as in a mutinous military unit,” decim3e being derived from decimus, “tenth.” Our word decimate is first recorded in this sense in 1600 in A Treatise of Ireland, written by John Dymmok: “All . . . were by a martiall courte condemned to dye, which sentence was yet mittigated by the Lord Lieutenants mercy by which they were onely decimated by lott.” Decimate then passed beyond the military context and came to be used rhetorically or loosely with reference to more than a tenth. Charlotte Bront?, for example, stated in a letter of 1848 that “Typhus fever decimated the school periodically,” although typhus fever certainly did not always kill exactly a tenth of the school's population.

英汉地质大词典

decimate
n.取...的十分之一,分样

英汉化学大词典

decimate
vt.十中抽一,取...的110,毁灭...的大部分,分样

英汉计算机大词典

decimate
vt.十中抽一(取...的1/10,毁灭...的大部分)

英汉建筑大词典

decimate
n.取...的十分之一,分样

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