简明英汉词典

decay
[di5kei]
vi.
腐朽, 腐烂, 衰减, 衰退
n.
腐朽, 腐烂, 衰减, 衰退
v.
衰落

美国传统词典[双解]

decay
de.cay
AHD:[d1-k3“]
D.J.[di6kei]
K.K.[d!6ke]
v.(动词)
de.cayedde.cay.ingde.cays
v.intr.(不及物动词)

(1)

Biology To break down into component parts; rot.
【生物学】 腐烂:分解成各组成部分;腐烂

(2)

Physics To disintegrate or diminish by radioactive decay.
【物理学】 衰变:由于放射性衰变而解体或缩小

(3)

Electronics To decrease gradually in magnitude. Used of voltage or current.
【电子学】 衰减:指电压或电流的逐渐减弱

(4)

Aerospace To decrease in orbit. Used of an artificial satellite.
【太空学】 能量衰减:指人造卫星在轨道上运行时能量消减

(5)

To fall into ruin:
衰亡,毁坏:
a civilization that had begun to decay.
已经开始衰落的文明

(6)

Pathology To decline in health or vigor; waste away.
【病理学】 衰弱,消瘦:在健康或精力方面衰退;变得衰弱

(7)

To decline from a state of normality, excellence, or prosperity; deteriorate.
使衰退:从正常、优秀或繁荣的状态衰败下去,恶化
v.tr.(及物动词)
To cause to decay.
使腐烂;使衰败
n.(名词)

(1)

The destruction or decomposition of organic matter as a result of bacterial or fungal action; rot.
腐烂:有机物质由于细菌的活动而受到的破坏或分解;腐烂

(2)

Rotted matter.
腐烂的物质

(3)

Physics Radioactive decay.
【物理学】 放射性的蜕变、衰变

(4)

Aerospace The decrease in orbital altitude of an artificial satellite as a result of conditions such as atmospheric drag.
【太空学】 能量消减:人造卫星由于大气阻力等的作用结果,在轨道高度上能量消减

(5)

A gradual deterioration to an inferior state:
衰败、衰落的状态:
tooth decay; urban decay.
蛀牙;城市的衰落

(6)

A falling into ruin.
衰亡

语源

(1)

Middle English decayen
中古英语 decayen

(2)

from Old French decair
源自 古法语 decair

(3)

from Vulgar Latin *d?e
源自 俗拉丁语 *d?e

(4)

Latin d?- [de-]
拉丁语 d?- [向下]

(5)

Latin cadere [to fall] * see kad-
拉丁语 cadere [减低,变弱] *参见 kad-

继承用法

decayer
n.(名词)

参考词汇

(1)

decayrotputrefyspoilcrumblemolderdisintegratedecompose

(2)

These verbs all refer to gradual change resulting in destruction or dissolution.
这些动词都表示导致毁灭或分解的逐步变化。

(3)

Decay denotes a falling away from soundness; it may imply a stage in deterioration short of complete destruction:
Decay 表示从完好健全的状态变弱;指未达到彻底毁灭状态时的恶化阶段:
Dentists advise their patients to brush and floss regularly to prevent their teeth from decaying.
牙医建议他们的病人定期刷牙并用洁牙线剔牙,防止蛀牙。

(4)

Rot is sometimes synonymous with decay (
Rot 有时与decay 的词义一样(
wood that had rotted), but it often, like putrefy, stresses a stage of deterioration marked by offensiveness to the sense of smell:
已经腐烂了的木头), 但正如putrefy, 该词经常强调恶化的阶段,伴有显著的令人作呕的气味:
Animal flesh that rots is attractive to vultures.
动物腐烂的肉体对兀鹰很有吸引力。
The intact carcass of the prehistoric animal was prevented from putrefying by the arctic cold.
史前时期动物的完整尸体,是由于北极严寒的保护不致腐烂。

(5)

Spoil usually refers to the process by which perishable substances, especially food, become unfit for use or consumption:
Spoil 通常指食物等易坏的物质变得不能使用或消费的过程:
I put the veal scallops into the refrigerator before they could spoil.
在小牛肉可能变质前,我把它们搁在冰箱里。

(6)

Crumble implies the physical breakdown of a substance into small fragments or particles:
Crumble 是物质分裂成碎片的意思:
We saw the remains of an ancient church that had crumbled to ruins. To
我们看到了那座已变成废墟的古教堂。

(7)

molder is to crumble to dust:
molder 指化为尘土:
Her grandmother's shawl had moldered away in the trunk.
她奶奶的围巾已经在箱子里腐烂了。

(8)

Disintegrate refers to complete breakdown into component parts and implies the destruction of usefulness or integrity:
Disintegrate 指完全分裂成组成部分,意味着功能整体的被破坏:
The sandstone fa?ade had disintegrated from long exposure to the elements.
由于长期暴露在自然环境中,沙岩的表面已经风化了。

(9)

Decompose, largely restricted to the breakdown of substances into their chemical components, also connotes rotting and putrefying, both literally and figuratively:
Decompose 主要限于指物质分裂成其化学组成成份,含有腐朽、腐烂的意思,既可以从字面上来理解,也可以从喻意上来理解:
“trivial personalities decomposing in the eternity of print” (Virginia Woolf).
缺少才华的作家逐渐从永恒的书籍世界中消失 (维琴尼亚·沃尔夫)

现代英汉词典

decay
[dI5keI]
vi.
decayed, decaying

(1)

腐败;使腐烂
Sugar can decay the teeth.
糖能蛀蚀牙。

(2)

衰退;衰微;衰败

现代英汉综合大辞典

decay
[di5kei]
vi.

(1)

腐朽, 腐烂; 分解, 风化, 变化

(2)

衰减, 衰退, 退化, 消失, 埋没

(3)

凋谢, 枯萎

(4)

(荧光屏的)余辉

(5)

(电荷存储管的)电荷减少, 能量损失
What made the Roman Empire decay?
罗马帝国为何衰亡?

词性变化

decay
[di5kei]
vt.
使腐朽[烂]; 使衰退
Sugar can decay the tooth.
糖会腐蚀牙齿。

decay
[di5kei]
n.

(1)

衰微, 衰退

(2)

腐朽, 腐烂

(3)

【无】衰变 premature decay 早衰 tooth decay 蛀牙 The house is in decay. 这房子已腐朽。

继承用法

decayable
adj.

decayless
adj.

习惯用语

be far gone in decay
衰弱过甚, 凋落不堪

go to decay (=fall into decay)
腐朽, 凋谢, 衰微; 年久失修

特殊用法

advanced decay
进级腐朽

alpha decay
α-衰变、蜕变

anaerobic decay
厌氧腐烂

arrested decay
【地质】抑制分解阶段

bimolecular decay
双分子衰减

biological decay
生物衰变; 生物腐败

branching decay
分支衰变

brightness decay
亮度衰减

chain decay
链衰变

classical beta decay
经典β衰变

competitive decay
竞争衰变

complex decay
复衰变

contrast decay
对比度降低, 反差衰减, 反衬度降低

double-beta decay
双β衰变

dual radioactive decay
【核】多重放射性衰变

electron-capture decay
电子俘获衰变

electron emission decay
电子发射衰变

environmental decay
环境衰退

exponential decay
指数式衰减

hindered alpha decay
受阻α衰变

inverse beta decay
【核】逆β蜕变

leptonic decay
(粒子)轻子型衰变

low decay
低惰性, 短余辉

mesonic decay
介子衰变

modulus decay
衰减系数

natural radioactive decay
放射性自然衰变

negative exponential decay
负指数式衰减

non-mesonic decay
非介子衰变

orbital decay
【航空】轨道衰减;【原物】轨道衰变

organic decay
有机衰减, 自然衰减

phosphorescent decay
磷光余辉

photo-conductivity decay
光[电]导衰减

plasma decay
等离子体衰变

positron decay
阳电子衰变

power-law decay
幂函数式衰减

radial decay
径向衰变

radiative decay
辐射衰变

rock decay
岩石风化

scintillation decay
闪烁现象衰减

semi-leptonic decay
半轻子衰变

series decay
【核】系列衰变

spontaneous decay
自发衰减

stress decay
应力衰减; 应力松弛

two-component decay
二分量衰变

welddecay
【冶】焊接区晶间腐蚀

decayof amplitude
振幅的衰减

decayof luminescence
发光衰变

decayof turbulence
湍流衰减

参考词汇
decay     rot     decompose    
均含“由良好变腐烂, 由健康变衰弱”的意思。

(1)

decay强调“由自然的过程而逐渐变坏或变弱”, 如:
His teeth began to decay.
他的牙齿开始龋蚀。

(2)

rot 语气较强, 指“腐烂”, 尤指“动植物等由细菌引起变质”, 如:
Don't eat rotten apples.
不要吃腐烂的苹果。

(3)

decompose强调“由自然的或化学的过程使某物分解腐烂”, 如:
The eggs began to decompose after a day in the sun.
鸡蛋在太阳下放了一天后开始变坏。

用法词典

decay
来自民间拉丁语decadere=de- 离开,失掉+cadere落下

参考词汇

(1)

decay,rot,decompose,spoil这组词的一般含义是腐烂、腐败。

(2)

decay 强调由完好的状态向腐烂进行逐渐自然的变化。词义引伸后,decay可以表示衰落或衰败。
Stone does not decay, and so the tools of long ago have remained when even the bones of the men who made them have disappeared without trace.
石头是不腐败的,因此远古年代的工具至今尚存,即使制造这些工具的人的骨头已经毫无痕迹地消失了。
Each civilization is born, it culminates, and it decay.
各种文明都要历经诞生,鼎盛和衰落。
What caused the Roman Empire to decay?
是什么促使罗马帝国衰落的?

(3)

rot 所表示的“腐烂”含义强烈,有时表示彻底烂掉,但有时表示腐烂的初期,这时腐败物未必已经开始散发臭味。词义引伸后,rot 表示消瘦或腐化堕落
They may also have used wood and skins, but these have rotted away.
他们也可能用过木头和皮子,但这些东西都烂掉了。
The snail has rotted away in its shell.
这只蜗牛已经在壳里腐烂完了。
The prisoner is left to rot in the jail.
这个囚徒被投入监狱任凭他渐渐消瘦下去。

(4)

decompose 指有机物物质分解为其他组成元素时的腐烂,因此这个词比较正式,远没有rot通俗。
Bacteria can decompose organic matter.
细菌能使有机物腐烂。
They decompose and are quickly destroyed by the weather or eaten by some other creature.
它们(指动物尸体)腐败之后很快被风化掉,或者被其他动物吃掉。

(5)

spoil 主要用于家庭中或市场上的食品变坏、腐烂变质
put the meat in the refrigerator, or it will soon spoil.
把肉放到冰箱里,不然它很快就会变坏的。

英文相关词典

decay
crumble    disintegrate    rot    spoil    

[七国语言]英汉地质大词典

decay
腐败

[七国语言]英汉地理大词典

decay
分解, 腐败

[七国语言]英汉电子大词典

decay
衰减

[七国语言]英汉电子工程大词典

decay
衰变

[七国语言]英汉化学大词典

decay
衰变

[七国语言]英汉机械工程大词典

decay
衰减

[七国语言]英汉建筑大词典

decay
衰减;腐败

[七国语言]英汉农业大词典

decay
腐烂, 腐朽

[七国语言]英汉轻工业大词典

decay
腐烂, 腐败

[七国语言]英汉生物学大词典

decay
分解

[七国语言]英汉物理大词典

decay
衰变

[七国语言]英汉冶金大词典

decay
衰变

[七国语言]英汉医学大词典

decay
腐烂, 腐蚀

[七国语言]英汉原子能大词典

decay
衰减, 减少

美国传统词典

decay
de.cay
AHD:[d1-k3“]
D.J.[di6kei]
K.K.[d!6ke]
v.
de.cayed, de.cay.ing, de.cays
v.intr.

(1)

Biology To break down into component parts; rot.

(2)

Physics To disintegrate or diminish by radioactive decay.

(3)

Electronics To decrease gradually in magnitude. Used of voltage or current.

(4)

Aerospace To decrease in orbit. Used of an artificial satellite.

(5)

To fall into ruin:
a civilization that had begun to decay.

(6)

Pathology To decline in health or vigor; waste away.

(7)

To decline from a state of normality, excellence, or prosperity; deteriorate.
v.tr.
To cause to decay.
n.

(1)

The destruction or decomposition of organic matter as a result of bacterial or fungal action; rot.

(2)

Rotted matter.

(3)

Physics Radioactive decay.

(4)

Aerospace The decrease in orbital altitude of an artificial satellite as a result of conditions such as atmospheric drag.

(5)

A gradual deterioration to an inferior state:
tooth decay; urban decay.

(6)

A falling into ruin.

语源

(1)

Middle English decayen

(2)

from Old French decair

(3)

from Vulgar Latin *d?e

(4)

Latin d?- [de-]

(5)

Latin cadere [to fall] * see kad-

继承用法

decayer
n.

参考词汇

(1)

decay, rot, putrefy, spoil, crumble, molder, disintegrate, decompose

(2)

These verbs all refer to gradual change resulting in destruction or dissolution.

(3)

Decay denotes a falling away from soundness; it may imply a stage in deterioration short of complete destruction:
Dentists advise their patients to brush and floss regularly to prevent their teeth from decaying.

(4)

Rot is sometimes synonymous with decay (
wood that had rotted), but it often, like putrefy, stresses a stage of deterioration marked by offensiveness to the sense of smell:
Animal flesh that rots is attractive to vultures.
The intact carcass of the prehistoric animal was prevented from putrefying by the arctic cold.

(5)

Spoil usually refers to the process by which perishable substances, especially food, become unfit for use or consumption:
I put the veal scallops into the refrigerator before they could spoil.

(6)

Crumble implies the physical breakdown of a substance into small fragments or particles:
We saw the remains of an ancient church that had crumbled to ruins. To

(7)

molder is to crumble to dust:
Her grandmother's shawl had moldered away in the trunk.

(8)

Disintegrate refers to complete breakdown into component parts and implies the destruction of usefulness or integrity:
The sandstone fa?ade had disintegrated from long exposure to the elements.

(9)

Decompose, largely restricted to the breakdown of substances into their chemical components, also connotes rotting and putrefying, both literally and figuratively:
“trivial personalities decomposing in the eternity of print” (Virginia Woolf).

[名词委审定]英汉土壤学名词(定义版, 1998)

decay

(1)

腐解作用

(2)

微生物对新鲜有机物的破坏和分解。

[名词委审定]英汉药学名词(1999)

decay
衰变

英汉船舶大词典

decay
n.衰减

英汉电力大词典

decay
n.衰减,衰变,减退

朗文英汉综合电脑词典

decay
衰变,衰减

英汉电信大词典

decay
n.衰变,余辉

英汉地质大词典

decay
n.腐烂,衰变,衰退,衰减,衰变,腐烂

英汉纺织大词典

decay
n.荧光屏余辉

英汉广播大词典

decay
n.衰变

英汉航海大词典

decay
n.衰退

英汉环境大词典

decay
n.衰减,衰变,腐烂

英汉航空大词典

decay
n.衰变,衰减;n.衰减,衰弱

英汉化学大词典

decay
n.腐朽,分解,衰变,衰退,分裂,腐败,衰化,余辉;vi.腐朽,衰变,下降

英汉海运大词典

decay
毁坏,衰变,衰减

基本词义

decay
毁坏衰变,衰减(荧光屏的)余辉电荷减少腐蚀

基本词义

decay
衰变,衰减

基本词义

decay
衰变,衰减(荧光屏的)余辉电荷减少腐蚀

基本词义

decay
衰减,衰变毁坏衰变,衰减

英汉经贸大词典

decay
n.衰退

英汉计算机大词典

decay
vi.腐朽(衰变,下降);n.分解(余辉)

英汉机械大词典

decay
n.衰变,衰减

英汉建筑大词典

decay
n.衰落,衰减,衰变

英汉农牧林大词典

decay
n.衰变,蜕变,腐败

英汉能源大词典

decay
n.蜕变,衰变,分裂

英汉汽车大词典

decay
n.衰减,衰变

英汉水利大词典

decay
n.减弱,减退,减少

英汉消防大词典

decay
腐烂

英汉心理学大词典

decay
衰退

英汉冶金大词典

decay
n.衰变,蜕变

英汉医学大词典

decay
n.衰变,蜕变

英汉中医大词典

decay
n.腐烂,腐朽,腐烂

英汉造纸大词典

decay
n.腐朽,腐蚀

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